Dante's Inferno 9 circles of hell?

can somebody please get me a link or two for the story about dante’s inferno and the 9 cirlces of hell or w/e…I cant seem to find it =[

Answer #1

Here you go: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Divine_Comedy

Ah, the link wont work. O.K go to www.wikipedia.com and type in ‘Divine Comedy’ and all the information is there.

Answer #2

Dante’s vision of Hell is a very ordered one. Hell is an enormous conical pit that leads down to the centre of the Earth. Within the pit are nine circles of decreasing size, where those condemned to Hell are punished. Every kind of sin has its own allotted place, either an entire circle or, lower down, a subdivision of a circle. Down the side of the entire pit runs a crack, which was caused by the earthquake that happened at the Resurrection.

The gate of Hell At the gate of Hell there is an inscription, famously ending ‘Abandon all hope, ye who enter here’, because those condemned to Hell have lost their chance of salvation for good. Beyond the gate is the river Acheron, the first of four rivers in Hell. As in classical mythology, a ferryman carries the souls of the dead across the river. Gathered on the near bank are the Futile, souls of the dead who did nothing remarkable in their lives and are condemned to be forgotten.

Limbo The first circle of Hell is Limbo, home to those who led good lives but were not Christians, so cannot enter Heaven. Although it is in Hell, Limbo is relatively pleasant - the only punishment is disappointment and regret. Limbo in the Divine Comedy is analogous to the Elysian Fields in classical mythology.

The lesser circles The next four circles punish sins of weakness, as follows:

Circle Sin Punishment
Second Lust Wind
Third Gluttony Rain
Fourth Greed (spending and hoarding) Pushing boulders around
Fifth Anger Submerged in a marsh

The marsh in the fifth circle is the river Styx. Dante and his guide must again be ferried across to continue their journey.

The City of Dis The four lower circles of Hell are inside a walled city called Dis. From outside the city looks like a bustling metropolis of evil, but inside it is revealed to be an eerie and deserted graveyard. This is the sixth circle of Hell, where heretics are buried in tombs and set on fire.

The seventh circle: Violence The seventh circle is split into three regions, where different forms of violence are punished:

Violence against others, including tyranny, is punished in Phlegethon, the river of fire. This river runs right round the outer edge of the seventh circle and then down towards the center of the pit. Violence against oneself. On the inner bank of Phlegethon is a wood, where the trees turn out to be suicides who have been condemned to give up their human form. Wanton spendthrifts (mainly compulsive gamblers) are also punished here, pursued through the wood by harpies. Violence against God or nature. This category includes blasphemers, usurers and homosexuals. All are punished in a desert of unbearable heat where fire rains from the sky. The only way to cross the desert is to walk along the dykes that guide the river Phlegethon towards the center of Hell. Beyond the desert, this river flows down a sheer drop into the eighth circle.

Malebolge The eighth circle is called Malebolge (which could be translated roughly as ‘evil ditches’). It is made up of ten concentric trenches, each of which is home to those guilty of a different form of fraud:

Form of fraud Punishment
Seduction Forced marching and whipping
Flattery Buried in filth
Simony (selling holy offices for profit) Stuck in wells and set on fire
Sorcery and soothsaying Heads twisted backwards
Political corruption Immersed in boiling tar
Hypocrisy Crushed under lead cloaks
Theft Turned into lizards
Evil counsel Fire
Sundering Mutilated by demons
Deceit and forgery Disease

These sins are known as minor fraud, as distinct from treachery (see below), which is considered a worse form of fraud. The imaginative, cruel and grotesque punishments of the eighth circle provide some of the most enduring images in the Inferno, and are what most people have in mind when they think of the works of Dante.

The ninth circle: Treachery The ninth and lowest circle, situated at the bottom of a deep well leading down to the center of the earth, is set aside for traitors. The circle takes the form of a frozen lake called Cocytus (the fourth river of Hell), and the traitors are frozen into the ice. Some have their heads free, while others are completely covered, according to the severity of their treachery.

In the ultimate depths of this circle, the travelers come upon Satan and the three worst human offenders:

Judas Iscariot Brutus Cassius Satan is depicted as a three-headed, winged demon of immense size, yet at the same time he is a pathetic figure: he is unable to move except to beat his wings ineffectually, and he cries constantly. The three worst traitors are punished by being chewed by Satan himself, and Judas, as the worst of all, is also lacerated by Satan’s claws.

In Dante’s time, Julius Caesar was honored as the first emperor of Rome, and Rome brought the ‘Pax Romana’. Hence, his assassins Brutus and Cassius are seen as betraying the divinely-ordained natural order.[1]

Denizens of Hell Sinners As he and Virgil travel through Hell, Dante speaks to many of the people he meets. Each circle is home to a multitude of sinners who are punished there, but the ones Dante identifies are mainly taken from antiquity, the Bible, and Florentine and Italian history.

Some notable encounters are:

Ulysses, who is punished in the eighth circle for his role in the Trojan War (Dante sympathised with the Trojans as the ancestors of the founders of Rome). Brunetto Latini, a teacher of Dante’s, who is punished for his homosexuality in the seventh circle. Mohammed, who is punished as a sunderer in the eighth circle. As the founder of Islam, his is blamed for leading many people away from Christianity. However, not all Muslims are treated so badly - some are allowed a place in Limbo, which means they committed no sin other than lacking the correct faith. Various Popes - Dante took an extremely dim view of what he saw as the corrupt nature of the Church at the time. Demons and monsters As well as the shades of humans, Hell is home to a number of supernatural creatures. Some of the punishments are carried out by demons, for example a demon with an enormous sword mutilates the sunderers in the eighth circle. In addition, each circle is guarded by a creature who personifies the sins punished there:

A carving of Cerberus, guardian of the third circleMinos, mythological king of Crete, guards the second circle (lust). He is depicted as a monstrous creature with a tail, who has the task of assigning new arrivals in Hell to their allotted place. Cerberus the ravenous three-headed dog guards the third circle (gluttony). Plutus, the personification of wealth, guards the fourth circle (greed). He speaks the unintelligible phrase ‘Pape Satan, Pape Satan aleppe!’, which has caused much debate among scholars as to its meaning. Phlegyas, another mythical king, is the ferryman who carries Dante across the Styx (circle of anger). The furies are seen on the walls of the City of Dis before Dante and Virgil gain entry to the circle of heresy. The seventh circle (violence) is guarded by the Minotaur and patrolled by Centaurs. Geryon, depicted as a strange beast with a handsome face and scaled body, carries Dante and Virgil down into the circle of fraud. Many giants, including Nimrod and the Titans, stand around the edge of the lowest circle. The Titans committed treason by waging war against the gods, while Nimrod committed treason against God by building the Tower of Babel (he now speaks a language that none can understand). In Popular Culture A 2002 best-selling mystery novel by Matthew Pearl, The Dante Club, is a piece of historical fiction set in Boston in 1865. It is based partly on real events; the Dante Club was real, the mystery story is not. At the time, not many people in the United States knew Italian or Dante’s work. A group of writers formed a club to translate Dante’s work and promote his importance. Three of them were Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and James Russell Lowell. Like Dante’s work itself, it has frightening and gruesome scene-COPIED FROM WIKIPEDIA

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